Reducing carbon output from the American power grid is an essential goal, meriting urgent and committed attention. But there are dangers of a 10-year timeline. Part 1 of this series discusses those dangers and introduces the new grid at the edge. Part 2 offers a way to achieve a low-carbon renewable energy power system. Part 3 describes the transition to DERs, the shift from an old paradigm to a new paradigm. This final part provides an overview of the proposed new paradigm of power delivery — the new grid.
EVs)Consequently, for purposes of simplification, Fig. 1 assumes a continuing and fixedgeneration requirement of 4171 billion kilowatt-hours.
Protecting system performance from malicious computer interference is another ongoing crucial task. To prevent significant blackouts and system perturbations, all the foregoing tasks must be done successfully under normal and abnormal (for example, weather extremes or malevolent disruptions) circumstances. The enormous changes proposed by the GND in a 10-year timeframe invite power system chaos, not just significant blackouts and system perturbations.
Challenges in realizing objectives of a new grid, why timeline for a 10-year plan is dangerous
1. Replacing the electric energy production of reliable and controllable power plants with electric energy generated from some intermittently available renewable resources is not sufficient. We also need to replace other services those power plants provide. At the top of this list is a service that is known as operating reserves.
2. The above-mentioned service within a region of an interconnection becomes vital when the region loses one or more of its large electric power production resources and/or its tie-lines to neighboring power systems. This service is currently delivered by some standby resources that can quickly produce and/or increase their production of electric power on short notice within the impacted region to mitigate overloading its remaining tie-lines. Inability to maintain dependable standby electric power production resources can lead to interruption of electricity supply to a large number of electric power consumers.
3. Standby electric power production resources are currently provided mostly by the extra band of fossil-fired steam and/or combined cycle power plants as well as gas turbines, hydro dams, and pump storage systems. Some utilities are evaluating the extent to which they should invest in some storage systems like batteries, controllable renewable resources like hydrogen, and others.
4. Penetration of intermittent resources like wind and solar will demand a level of operating reserves that is many times that of the current level.
The new paradigm: Using the new grid
Providing safe, stable, and economical operation of the new grid requires extensive redevelopment and reimplementation of the associated energy management and load dispatching systems. This requires developing new DERMs.
Global production of CO2 from combustion
Fig. 4 illustrates the limited relative potential impact (15% of the world) of CO2 resulting from the decarbonization of fuel combustion in the United States. The chart compares the shares by country of CO2 emissions because of carbonaceous fuel combustion to decarbonize carbonaceous fuel combustion in the United States. The chart also shows the share by country of CO2 emissions because of fuel combustion.
The energy concepts associated with the GND, as currently proposed, are visionary but impractical and potentially dangerous. Such shortcomings are delineated in this article. It is the intention of this article to mitigate those shortcomings and to describe a new grid that will facilitate the implementation of a safe, stable, and resilient energy grid, which is predominantly based on lower-, zero-, or near zero-carbon energy resources. This article provides a conceptual blueprint of the new grid as well as a primer on generally how a grid works.
The design and engineering supporting the new grid should be flexible enough to be a fundamental pattern or widespread installation of zero- or near zero-carbon energy resources. The purpose of this article is to stir creativity on a worldwide basis. Sharing engineering efforts internationally via engineering societies and other technical organizations could create design patterns that would facilitate standards of engineering, design, procurement, and construction techniques. Such an approach would minimize "reinventing the wheel" and provide a foundation that would leverage the talents and skills of an international organization of scientists, engineers, and technicians.
- Joseph Sperry, PhD, editing – Co-founder of S4 Consulting
- Dan Madden, PE – CEO of Eco Energy International
- Nasser Jaleeli, PhD-EE, PE – CEO of Priority-based Control Engineering
- Michael Heyeck, PE – Founder, The Grid Group, LLC
- Tim Lowe, PhD – VP of Eco Energy International
- Harry MacCormack, MFA – Board member of Ten Rivers Food Web
- Bernie Gagliano – Independent consultant and information architect