In North America, the most apparent need for outside relaying-related services is in the areas of training and installation services. Western European utilities agreed with the need for training and installation, but they also were looking for help with commissioning, renovation and upgrade services. Eastern European utilities expressed nearly universal needs for setting studies and training services, closely followed by a need for protective systems design services.
Giuliante indicated that with downsizing "completed" in many large utilities, many T&D engineering staffs are pared below a nominal safe level, and there is a serious shortage of relay engineers with 7 to 10 years of experience. For this reason, and the fact that he expects that relay engineers will be asked to wear multiple engineering hats in the future, reliance on outside service firms with relay expertise will necessarily increase.